Centre-Ville de Luxembourg
The old quarter of the City of Luxembourg extends westwards from the Bock promontory, where the first ducal family established itself.
The Rocher du Bock is a honeycomb of 17th- and 18th-century casemates, the largest surviving ensemble of underground fortifications.
Also of importance is the bridge joining the Bock to the upper town, the Church of Saint-Michel, originating from the 10th century. The latter-day Marché-aux-Poissons was the main market in the Middle Ages and the first open space in the town.
The present Grand Ducal Palace stands on the site of the first maison communale built in 1244 and of the Hôtel de Ville.
The Rue Wiltheim, which leads down to Pfaffenthal, follows the route of the Roman road to Trier.
The governmental quarter and Notre-Dame Cathedral: the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Luxembourg is the former church of the Jesuit College upon which work began in 1613; it was consecrated in 1621. It is an outstanding example of Netherlands late Gothic architecture, with a Renaissance portal and rood-screen.
Alongside the cathedral is the Présidence du Gouvernement, known today as the Maison de Bourgogne. It belonged until 1676 to the Berbourg family, traditional cup-bearers to the ducal house. Its brick staircase towers illustrate the transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance style.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Rue Notre-Dame was built in 1751 in characteristic Louis XV style.
The lower town of Grund and the Plateau du Rham: archaeological excavations have shown that the Grund and Rham areas were settled for some six centuries before Count Sigefroid took possession of the Bock promontory in 963.
The Wenceslas Wall formed part of the third defensive circuit built in the late 14th century. It underwent a number of modifications and strengthenings as artillery improved.
The Grund sluice was built by the Austrians in 1731; it consists of a massive masonry dam with vaulted openings that could be closed to prevent water passing through them. Much of the lock was dismantled in 1878, but its remains are still impressive, and also provide a magnificent panorama of the city.
The Hospital Saint-Jean was founded in 1308; in 1543 a Benedictine community was established there, to become known as the Neuminster.